BEASY software provides a range of integrated software modules to help engineers perform fatigue crack growth analysis. BEASY can help your engineers improve their damage tolerance analysis work by providing them with tools to more accurately understand the behaviour of flaws in critical structural components. Higher fidelity data characterizing critical crack sizes and crack growth rates will improve structural life estimates. If a crack is found during routine inspection, a BEASY crack growth simulation can be used to determine if this crack will continue to grow and if so how much longer the asset can safely operate before repair is necessary. BEASY's automatic crack growth capability can also be used to support the non-destructive inspection (NDI) process. BEASY's crack path predictive capability can be used to guide NDI equipment operators to those fracture critical areas of the structure.
BEASY Fatigue & Crack Growth
BEASY's Fracture & Fatigue Crack Growth (FCG) software enables engineers to quickly develop high fidelity fracture mechanics models based on the actual structural component. This software is used by engineers, performing damage-tolerant design assessments, to determine accurate stress intensity factor (SIF) solutions and simulate 3D crack growth.
BEASY Crack Simulation Technology provides easy to use crack modelling tools to predict:
- Stress Intensity Factors
- Crack Growth Rates
- Crack Growth Paths
- Critical Crack Sizes
The BEASY SIF Wizard provides an interactive GUI that engineers can use to automatically insert, parametrically controllable crack shapes, in models. Our easy to use modelling process supports the setup and launch of a FCG simulation using the BEASY Crack Growth Wizard - providing critical data on crack growth rates and crack shape evolution.
BEASY's Fracture Mechanics Software provides crack modelling tools to aid decision-making processes and discover potential problems at the design stage. BEASY advanced fracture mechanics software provides a radically improved approach to predictive computational analysis.
BEASY Automatic Crack Growth modelling technologies provides quick and accurate tools to:
- Add cracks to models
- Predict stress intensity factors
- Predict crack growth rate and direction
- Simulate crack growth in complex 3D structures
- Predict residual strength
Automatic Crack Growth
The BEASY Crack Growth Wizard provides a process-driven GUI to launch fully automatic 3D crack growth simulations. This system links the SIF solutions, NASGRO fatigue crack growth material properties, and load spectrum to simulate crack growth in real structures. The crack is advanced automatically based on user-defined parameters and provides information on how many cycles will be required to reach a critical crack size.
A variety of fatigue crack growth models, including the simple Paris Law, Walker Chang, and NASGRO can be selected. BEASY is fully integrated with the NASGRO 2, 3 material database and interfaces with later versions of NASGRO. The user can select the required material from a series of dropdown menus.
There is full support for using Load Spectrum (LSP) data to drive the crack growth process and a range of LSP formats are available; including standard block, sequential loading, and multi-axial load spectrum formats.
The SIF data and crack growth rate data can be quickly processed using graphing functions available in the Crack Growth Wizard or manipulated using BEASY's templates to display fatigue crack growth results in a series of charts and summary data tables using specially designed Excel macros. This data is also output in tabular formats for easy import into common desktop software.
Stress Intensity Factors
BEASY supports mixed mode crack growth and computes KI, KII and KIII. The SIF is computed using either the J-Integral or Crack Opening Displacement (COD) method. BEASY provides a multi-point SIF solution along the entire crack front.
Fracture Mechanics Solver
BEASY utilizes a multi-threaded, boundary integral solver, with parallel processing capability to solve computational fracture mechanics problems. This technology more accurately represents the near singular stress fields that occur near the crack front. BEASY’s surface only meshing is very efficient for crack modelling and integrates well with adaptive meshing routines used to advance cracks in structural models. The software supports both 2D and 3D crack modelling. Although BEASY models utilize a boundary element solution to drive crack growth, the software can also use more globally oriented FE solutions as input to fracture sub models when needed.
Fatigue Crack Growth
BEASY supports both 2D and 3D fatigue crack growth simulations. Crack growth directions and rate are computed at discrete locations along the crack front. Crack grow direction is generally predicted using either the strain energy density or maximum principal stress criterion. Load spectrum data can be generated using a number of supported industry formats including block spectrum, sequential, multi-axial, and others. A variety of crack growth relationships (e.g. Paris, NASGRO, etc) are also available to compute da/dN rates.
Use BEASY SIF Solutions To Feed Your Structural Lifing Software
The BEASY SIF Wizard is a powerful tool used to determine stress intensity factor solutions for cracks located in real geometry. The initial flaw can be selected from a library of crack shapes and automatically inserted in structural models, at user defined orientation and as a 'cavity' not just a crack. The SIF solution is determined along the entire crack front and is not just a two-point handbook type solution. These SIF solutions can be effectively used to create a table of beta factor solution for commonly used engineering components. BEASY’s multi-point SIF solutions are critical for simulating accurate crack shape evolution and identifying critical locations along the crack front where fracture assessment criteria may be exceeded.
Damage Tolerant Design
Predict how cracks will impact the durability and integrity of a structure during its service life:
- What size crack will grow?
- How fast will the crack grow?
- Which change to the design will increase durability and extend service life?
- How will residual stress fields impact the crack growth rate?
Investigate the mode of failure by simulating crack growth behaviour:
- In which direction will the crack propagate?
- How will the part eventually fail?
- How fast will the crack grow under existing operating conditions?
- Is the "leak before break" criterion satisfied?
- If a crack is discovered - is it growing slowly enough that it can be safely monitored by an increased inspection interval?
Virtual Fracture Testing
The cost burden of the experimental testing needed to satisfy structural integrity requirements is quite significant. Virtual testing is rapidly emerging as a key technology for fracture mechanics, with the promise of dramatically reducing design time, cutting the cost of certification, and reducing the need for labour intensive full scale fatigue testing.
- Supplement experimental testing with proven computational fracture mechanics solutions
- Provide insight into how a part might fail under realistic service loads using crack growth simulations
Structures regularly operate in environments that can generate high levels of corrosion damage. This damage often results in stress concentrations developing in critical areas in the structure; it can also accelerate the development of cracks. We can use the galvanic stress distribution obtained from the BEASY Corrosion Manager software to identify areas of high corrosion risk. We can then use this information to inform a BEASY fracture model and ultimately assess the impact of corrosion damage on the likelihood of a corrosion represenative crack growing under mechanical load. We can also determine the stress concentration factors (SCF) associated with differently shaped, but quantifiable, corrosion damage features.
Residual Stress Fields & Crack Growth Behaviour
It is important to take account of residual stresses as they can impact crack initiation locations and crack growth rates. Simulations can be used to avoid overly conservative designs and to understand where cracks may grow faster than expected. The BEASY modelling technology utilizes the residual stress field (often determined from FE nonlinear analysis such as ABAQUS, ANSYS, NASTRAN) to drive the crack growth simulation. In cases where a residual stress is present, irregular crack shapes often evolve and situation can occur where part of the crack front is not advancing; an analysis using BEASY will highlight these effects and characterize the effect of a residual stress field on crack propagation behaviour.
Contact Loading Effects on SIFs
Predicts the effect of contact loading on crack behaviour. BEASY’s nonlinear contact algorithm automatically computes the change in position of the contacting surfaces and the resulting stress redistribution.
BEASY’s constraint based contact algorithm computes the appropriate surface contact conditions (e.g., open, closed, sliding) and enforces these conditions using an iterative solution method. Load sequencing effects can be included, when friction is present, to accurately capture the load transfer history.
Hole propping (lugs, fasteners), and edge of contact effects (fretting fatigue), are two common contact related phenomena that influence SIF solutions; BEASY provides a powerful approach to model these coupled contact-fracture applications.
Fracture Assessment Tool
BEASY Fracture Assessment Tool (FASST) can be used to quickly assess the effect of a crack on the structural integrity of a component or structure by calculating the maximum stress intensity factor for a given crack size using the predicted 3D stress at any location. The sensitivity of the stress intensity factor to the crack size at a location can also be investigated and the data viewed graphically. Typically stress intensity factors are computed using handbook solutions for a specific loading and model geometry or by performing a crack simulation by incorporating a crack into a simulation model. For the case where parameter studies are required the BEASY Fracture Assessment Tool automates the process of investigating multiple crack locations and the impact of multiple crack sizes. In addition to accurate stress intensity factor data, BEASY FASST provides sensitivity to crack size and location, which is valuable information to the design engineer and to those responsible for manufacturing control or maintenance
Fatigue Crack Growth Criteria
Supported crack growth laws include:
- Walker Chang
- Tabulated da/dN vs ΔK data
Retardation models can be used with select crack growth equations to represent the effect of overloads and increased plastic zone size at the crack front that result in temporary reductions in da/dN rates.
- Generalised Willenborg
- Modified Generalised Willenborg
- Walker Chang
Crack Growth Direction Criteria
- Maximum Principal Stress
- Minimum Strain Energy Density
- Minimum Multiaxiality Quotient q(θ)
- Mode 1 only (forced planar)
- NASGRO 3 database provided (over 360 materials)
- Ability to link to the NASGRO 5 & 6 database versions
- FCG material property data from the latest versions of NASGRO or AFGROW can also be entered
- Single or multiple cracks, parametric shape control
- Embedded or edge cracks
- User-defined arbitrary cracks shapes
- User-friendly Crack Management Library
- Crack behaviour simulated using highly accurate dual boundary element method
Fatigue Crack Growth Results
- Stress Intensity Factors
- Crack shape evolution
- Crack growth rate
- Non-planar crack propagation paths
- Mixed-mode analysis
- Spatially varying da/dt or da/dN properties
- Isotropic, linear elastic for 3D, 2D and axisymmetric crack growth analysis
- Isotropic, orthotropic and anisotropic linear elastic for 2D and 3D stress analysis
- Multi axial fatigue
- Non-linear contact
Finite Element Interfaces
BEASY is tightly integrated with popular, commercial FEA systems (ABAQUS, ANSYS & NASTRAN). Special interfaces have been developed, that use existing FE solutions sets, to create fracture models. A unique process has been developed so that the FE mesh and loading can be used directly to create a BEASY fracture model.
Sub models can even be extracted from large, global FE solution sets, to perform localized fracture mechanics; there is no need to rebuild models just to obtain an SIF solution. These FE Interfaces work seamlessly with the BEASY fracture toolset. Engineers can use their existing FEA software platforms but also leverage the power of a BEASY crack growth simulation. Post-processing of the cracked part, in your particular FE software package, is fully supported.
Global – Local Fracture Modelling
The BEASY FE Interface software combines the advantage of using large scale FE model solutions with the accuracy of high fidelity local sub-models of facture critical areas. The software also provides the technology to derive residual stress fields from non-linear FEM model solutions. These residual stress fields can then be used to drive crack growth simulations in local sub-models.
Model Cutting Tool Software
The BEASY Model Cutting Tool is designed to simplify and automate the process of dividing models into zones. This can be particularly useful when using Finite Element models to create a BEASY model or when there is need to reduce the computational time of the simulation.
Typical applications include: dividing the model into zones to reduce the computational cost of the simulation and cutting away parts of the model not needed for the simulation.
When solving stress applications, the degrees of freedom can quickly increase, especially when introducing cracks into the model. This can have a major impact on the computational time of a simulation. However, this impact can be lessened by splitting the model into “zones” which can significantly decrease the computational time. This can be done manually, which can be quite a laborious process, or the “BEASY Model Cutting Tool” can be used to quickly “cut up” an existing mesh and automatically zone and re-mesh it.
THE BEASY PATRAN Interface works within the MSC PATRAN environment and uses custom designed template to create BEASY models. The full capability of the PATRAN modelling environment is supported. CAD model files (PARASOLID, IGES, STEP, etc.) can be imported and used to create BEASY's unique surface based models; critical, stress-riser type, geometric features can be included. Surface meshing is accomplished using PATRAN's surface element typology (QUAD9, TRI6). Custom menus are available to apply, BEASY specific, model loading and restraints. A special translator application is used to allow BEASY solutions to be read directly into a PATRAN database and then post-processed using the wide array of results viewing options available in PATRAN.
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The BEASY ABAQUS software interface provides an integrated approach between BEASY and ABAQUS for stress, fracture and crack growth simulation. It provides the tools to leverage existing FEM models and results to fast track the development of BEASY fracture and crack growth models. The BEASY results can then be visualised within the ABAQUS CAE environment.
It also provides the technology to derive from non-linear and transient ABAQUS models residual stress fields for use in BEASY fracture or crack growth simulation models.
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The BEASY ANSYS software interface provides an integrated approach between BEASY and ANSYS for stress, fracture and crack growth simulation. It provides the tools to leverage existing FEM models and results to fast track the development of BEASY fracture and crack growth models.
It also provides the technology to derive from non-linear and transient ANSYS models residual stress fields for use in BEASY fracture or crack growth simulation models.
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The BEASY NASTRAN software interface provides an integrated approach between BEASY and NASTRAN for stress, fracture and crack growth simulation. It provides the tools to leverage existing FEM models and results to fast track the development of BEASY fracture and crack growth models. The BEASY results can then be visualised within the NASTRAN post-processing tool via a NASTRAN op2 file.
It also provides the technology to derive from non-linear and transient NASTRAN models residual stress fields for use in BEASY fracture or crack growth simulation models.
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